Denim dictionary

Textiles & Apparel | Denim Dictionary | History of Chinos & Khaki | History of Corduroy | History of a T-Shirt
2 x 1 Twill A twill fabric that repeats on three warp ends and three filling picks in weaving. This warp faced twill has two warp ends over the filling / weft pick and one warp end under it for every repeat.
2 x 2 Twill A twill fabric that repeats on four warp ends and four filling picks in weaving. This fabric has two warp ends over the filling / weft pick and two warp ends under it for every repeat.
3 x 1 Twill A twill fabric that repeats on four warp ends and four filling picks in weaving. This warp-faced twill has three warp ends over the filling / weft pick and one warp end under it for every repeat.
3-D Whiskers Usually implies that a jean impregnated with some type of resin will then be paritally heat set in a natural position to create permanent creases or "whiskers" with texture or a naturally worn effect.
Abrasion Wet processors in industrial laundries make garments look worn or faded by using different abrasion techniques like scraping or rubbing the surface of the fabric. Pumice stones are the most frequently used materials. (See: stone wash)
Acetate / Triacetate The oldest man-made fiber and the first one made using tree pulp. Fabrics were made from acetate during WWI and used in airplane wings. Acetate has fair absorbency, high luster, silk-like poor abrasion resistance, poor fastness to the sun and low strength, which reduces 30% when wet.
Acid Wash Patented by the Italian Canadian Laundry Company in 1986, this finish gave indigo jeans sharp contrast. The process was achieved by soaking pumice stones in chlorine before industrial laundering, which when exposed to jeans created contrast. Also known as marble wash, moon wash and snow wash.
Acrylic Synthetic fiber that is made with just the right combination of coal, air, water, petroleum, and limestone. The fiber has fair affinity to dye, but pills easily.
Amoskeag A New Hampshire factory town which was the first major source of denim in the United States. The Amoskeag Manufacturing Company was established in 1838 and by 1900 claimed to be the world’s biggest textile producer. It later declined due to poor management and industrial unrest. Amoskeag denim was used exclusively for Levi’s 501 jeans until 1915.
Anti-Fit Contrary to what some believe to be the meaning of the term, anti-fit has nothing to do with the general size of jeans. Anti-fit is a way of cutting the rise of the jean in a straight line (as opposed to curved). The teachnique was invented by Levi’s and gives the 501 jean its recognisable and famous top block. Anti-fit cut jeans don’t follow the shape of your body. The cut is the result of Levi’s experimenting to maximise every inch of the denim fabric in the late 1890s and early 1900s. Some of the benefits of the anti-fit include greater comfort, less wear on the seat, and of course, and a good looking pair of jeans even though you wear them 2 sizes too big.
Arcuate The arcuate is thought to be the oldest clothing trademark still in use. Before Levi’s patented their seagull-arcuate in 1943, and before the before the introduction of Wrangler’s “Western Wear” W’s and Lee Lazy-S, all used the same design. Levi’s jeans have featured arcuates since the patenting of the rivets in 1873, however, it has been speculated that they weren’t the first to employ it.
Atari Atari is a Japanese buzzword term that covers selective fading around seams such as belt loops or pocket seams. The most common areas for atari are along the side seams, on the front and back of the knees, the upper thigh, along the hem, and on belt loops and along the pocket seams.
Azoic Dyes Azoic dyes are the insoluble pigments formed within the fiber by padding, first with a soluble coupling compound and then with a diazotized base.
Back Cinch The back cinch is a buckle placed on the yoke of jeans. Back cinches were the common way for jeans wearer to tighten the waist before widespread use of belts. Levi’s stopped fitting the back cinch on their 501 jeans during WWII, but with renewed interest in vintage-styled looks, cinch backs have returned on modern jeans.
Back Wale A wale formed on a dial needle in circular weft knitting or a back-bed needle in flat-bed knitting.
Bartak A sewing procedure that reinforces stress points on jeans, usually front flies, pocket openings and crotch joins of inseams. 
Basket Weave A fabric weave where more than one filling thread passes over and under the same number of threads on alternate rows of the warp.
Bedford Cord A fabric weave with ribs down the length of the fabric. The ribs can be any width. The fabric looks like an uncut, unbrushed corduroy without a velvet feeling.
Big E Jeans made by Levi Strauss before 1971 where the “E” on the red LEVI tab was a capital. Levi Strauss replaced the Big E logo with a lower case e after this time.
Bio Polish A phrase usually used to describe an Acid Celullase wash. This terminology is more commonly used when referring to lighter weight fabrics such as shirtings.
Bleach A general description of color reduction that can include or refer to the use of hypoclorite bleach, hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate or a few other types of oxidative bleach and color reductive chemistries such as laccase enzymes.
Bleaching An industrial finishing process that takes off natural and artificial impurities from yarn or fabric. Also a process for laundries to make denim jeans fade.
Boll Weevil This beetle is the most serious pest confronting cotton farmers. Each spring adult boll weevils deposit between 1-300 eggs in cotton buds. Because it takes only 2-3 weeks for the egg to develop into an adult, it is possible that 2-10 generations of the beetle are created each year. Insecticides cannot stop the boll weevil because the larvae live inside the cotton boll where it destroys both seeds and surrounding fibres. Organic farmers control the beetle by mowing down and ploughing their crops completely at the end of each season taking away the place for the pest to hide. In 1978 a test was conducted in North Carolina to determine feasibility of eradicating the weevil from the growing areas. Based on the success of this, area-wide programs were begun in
the 1980s to eradicate the insect from whole regions. These are based on cooperative effort by all growers together with the assistance of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). The program has been successful in eradicating weevils from Virginia and the Carolinas, Georgia, Florida, south Alabama, California, Arizona, and Louisiana. Efforts are ongoing to eradicate the weevil from the rest of the United States. Continued success is also based on prohibition of unauthorized cotton growing, outside of the program, and constant monitoring for any recurring outbreaks.
Broken Twill A denim fabric weave first used by Wrangler in 1964 in their jeans style 13MWZ. The diagonal weave of the twill is intentionally interrupted to form a random design. Used prominently in the 1980’s by designer jeans brands like Sassoon, Jordache, and Calvin Klein with their dark prewash jeans and of course originally made famous by Wrangler.
Bull Denim A 3×1 twill weave piece-dyed fabric, made from coarse yarns. Weights can vary from 9 oz/square yard up to standard 14 oz/square yard. It’s basically denim without indigo!
Canvas The simplest weave in textiles is a plain weave (1×1) where the filling yarn is passed over and under individual warp yarns. Using thick yarns makes the fabric into a canvas.
Carding The industrial yarn preparation process where raw cotton is separated, opened, cleaned, and made into slivers.
Cast A descriptive term for shade. Depending upon the dye and wash techniques used, indigo denim may have a variety of casts such as red, black, gray, green, yellow, or brown.
Catalyst A substance or agent that initiates a chemical reaction and makes it possible for it to proceed.
Cellulose The basic structural component of plant cell walls, cellulose comprises about 33% of all vegetable matter. Ninety percent of cotton and 50% of wool are cellulose. It is the most abundant of all naturally occurring organic compounds. Cellulose is processed to produce paper, fiber and is chemically modified to yield substances used in the manufacture of such items as rayon, plastics, and photographic films. Other cellulose derivatives are used as adhesives, explosives, thickening agents for foods, as well as moisture-proof coatings.
Cellulosic Fibers Fibers from some plant or plant-based materials. They are usually categorized as "natural" or "manufactured". Cotton and linen counts as natural cellulosic fibers. Other fibers, such as Tencel, polyester, rayon, acetate and triacetate, are made from wood pulp and are considered man-made cellulosic fibers. 
Chambray A plain weave fabric, with a single but different warp and weft color in jeanswear. Fabric mills usually use a medium depth indigo warp color and natural (unbleached) weft.
Chino The name came from both the trouser style worn by British Colonial troops in the 1800’s and the fabric used to tailor the pants. Today a cotton trouser is referred to as a chino and the fabric would be considered as a tightly woven, 2 ply, right hand, 3×1, combed cotton twill.
Ciba-Geigy AG Swiss multinational holding company created in 1970 in the merger of two concerns headquartered in Basel-Ciba and J.R. Geigy SA. The group consist of affiliates in some 50 countries and is engaged in the manufacture and marketing of dyes and chemicals; pharmaceuticals; plastics and additives; agricultural chemicals and fertilizers; photographic products; and household and garden products.
Clariant’s Pad/Sizing-OX An eco-efficient process which drastically reduces the amount of water ( >90%) and energy (up to 30%) for the production of sustainable and fashionable denim. With the use of Clariant’s Diresul dyes, Advanced Denim opens the opportunity to develop special shades using the full range of sulfur colors, as well as traditional “indigo color” shade bands (while utilizing an indigo-free process). Traditional denim wash down effects, including high/low seam contrast are achievable.
Combed Yarn A yarn whose sliver is combed so that all the fibers are straight and parallel. The result is a yarn that is smoother and stronger than uncombed yarn. It time-consuming process, which makes the yarn more expensive.
Combing An industrial yarn preparation process where fibers are combed to make them parallel in sliver and short fibers are taken out. [See: Combed Yarn]
Compact Spinning A system of spinning that folds fibers back into the yarn producing a stronger and cleaner yarn. Also provides an alternative touch after stonewashing.
Conventional Cotton A term used to describe the most common commercial system for growing cotton - feeding plants heavy dosages of synthetic fertilizers, and eliminating competing species for maximum yields. Spraying toxic pesticides (chemical herbicides, insecticides and defoliants) is dangerous to farmers, farm hands and people who live near farms as well as our environment. Alternatives include: bio-technology cotton, which integrates the chemistry directly on the cotton seed, preventing the need for spraying altogether; and organic cotton, which is grown without the use of any synthetic agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers or pesticides.
Corduroy The French originally called this lush velvety fabric “Cord Du Roi”, meaning "cord of the king." The fabric is ribbed throughout the length and the ribs are cut and sheared so that a smooth velvety surface appears. Fourteen wale corduroy was one of the most important jeans fabrics in the 1960’s and in the 1970’s are when jeans became universal. The fabric is woven by having one warp and two filling. After weaving the back of the fabric is coated with glue, and the ribs are cut open down the centre. Once the glue is removed, the face of the fabric is finished by a series of brushings, waxings and singeings. When the pile is made from extra fillings rather than from extra warp yarns, the fabric is called velveteen. [See: Velveteen]
Core Spun Yarn A yarn in which a base yarn is completely wrapped by a second yarn.
Cotton Cotton, genus Gossypium, one of the world’s most important crops produces white fibrous bolls that are manufactured into a highly versatile textile. The plant has white flowers which turn purple about two days after blooming, and large divided leaves. Length of fiber ranges from 3/3” to 2” (Egyptian, Sea Island). The longer the fiber the higher the price and the more luxurious the fabric. Cotton withstands high temperatures, can be boiled and hot pressed. It is resistant to abrasion has good affinity to dyes, increases in strength 10% when wet. The world’s leading producers of cotton are China, The United States, India, Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Brazil, Turkey, Australia, and Egypt.
Cotton Bale A standard bale of cotton weighs 480 lbs. In India, a cotton bale weighs 375 lbs.
Cotton Gin On March 14, 1794 Eli Whitney patented his invention of a machine that could take seeds out of cotton, allowing for much greater productivity than manual cotton separation. Although one of the most important hardware developments if the history of cotton textiles, Whitney’s gin invention was pirated and this put Whitney’s company out of business by 1796.
Cotton Inspection The grading and classing of cotton to facilitate interstate and foreign commerce in cotton by providing official quality determinations. Cotton is classed based on its measurements for fiber length, strength and length, micronaire (a measure of the cotton's fineness), color grade, color reflectance, color yellowness, and trash percent area.
Courtaulds One of the oldest and largest textile groups in the world. Divided today into two groups, Courtaulds Textiles with fabric production, garment manufacturing and retail; and Courtaulds Plc, a chemical company which produces fibers and developed and marketed Tencel®.
Crock A term used to describe how dye rubs off fabric onto skin or other fabric.
Crosshatch An effect in the denim weave created by using uneven yarns in the weft direction combined with uneven yarns in the warp direction.
Defoliation A chemical dust or spray applied to cotton in order to facilitate harvesting. Defoliants were employed in warfare to eliminate enemy food crops and potential areas of concealments of enemy forces by South Vietnamese and U.S. forces in the Vietnam war; the most controversial substance being the chemical compound known as Agent Orange.
Desize A process applied typically at the beginning of a jeans formula to remove starch, PVA or other "sizing" products to prepare the jeans for a subsequent abrasion or softener process.
Dips Used to describe fabric or yarn when they are immersed in dye. Indigo yarns are dipped in an indigo bath usually 6 times but up to 16 times.
Direct Dye Popular dyes for cotton that are easy and inexpensive to apply, but tend to have limited brightness and poor washfastness. The biggest problem is fastness to sun.
Discharge Print Discharge printing is a method of applying a color onto a dyed fabric by printing a colour-destroying agent, such as chlorine or hydrosulfite, to bleach out a white or light pattern on the darker coloured ground. In colour-discharge printing, a dye impervious to the bleaching agent is combined with it, producing a coloured design instead of white on the dyed ground.
Dobby A fabric made on special looms to create a fabric with small geometric figures incorporated into the weave.
Double Needle A seam commonly used in jeanswear garments (shirts, jeans, jackets) where a sewing machine stitches two threads side by side at one time in order to increase strength.
Draper Loom Most classic American selvage denim was produced on looms made by the Draper Northrop Corporation in Hopedale, Massachusetts. Their looms boasted features like an automatic bobbin change, which allowed an operator to oversee more looms than was possible than the ‘Hand Looms’ produced by rivals such as Whitin. After their introduction in 1894, Draper automatic looms soon became the industry standard, in versions such as the Model E, and the later X series. Their last common selvage loom was the X-3, which was capable of producing denim in 60-inch width (which explains why visible selvage is less common on jeans from the 1950s onwards). Despite marketing spiel that high-end Japanese denim is produced on “Old Levi’s” or “Old Draper” looms, there is no evidence that American looms are used for production in Japan. [See: Toyoda Loom]
Drawing / Drafting The industrial process where slivers are pulled out after carding and/or combing.
Drill Usually a left hand 2×1 weave, twill fabric.
Dry Process Dry processes include scraping, brushing, sanding, whiskering, grinding and laser application on denim and/or woven garments.
Duck Once known as a fabric lighter than canvas, today a duck is considered to be a synonym for canvas or plain weave cotton made from medium to course yarns.
Dungaree Comes from the Hindi word used to describe the trousers worn by sailors from the Indian port of Dungri many years ago.
DuPont They brought the world Nylon, Teflon, Lycra…
Dyeing The industrial process to add color to fiber, yarn, fabric, or garments.
Eight O Seven (807) The law that allows fabrics to be cut in the United Sates, garments to be assembled in Mexico, Caribbean, and Central American Countries, returned to the United Sates with tariff assessed only on the added value (sewing).
End An individual warp yarn. Constructions are expressed as the number of ends per inch followed by the number of picks per inch. For, example, a typical denim construction is 66 x 46.
Enzyme Wash A general description of an abrasion wash that requires the use of a neutral or acid cellolase enzyme.
Enzymes Enzymes are used in textile processing, mainly in the fishing or fabrics and garments. Enzymes speed up chemical processes that would run very slowly if at all. They are non-toxic and readily broken down. 
Fabric Weight Refers to the ounces per square yard of a fabric. Denim is typically woven in weights from 4 to 15 ounces per square yard.
Fair to Middling The name for the grade of cotton usually used in the spinning of yarns that will be used for the production of denim fabric.
Fair Trade Cotton Fair Trade International established a set of standards to ensure the long-term well-being and health of cotton growers. Some of these standards are: setting minimum price for cotton; set at different values depending on the producing region; the minimum price always covers the cost of sustainable production and if market price is higher than fair trade’s minimum then market price applies. Fair trade organic cotton price is set 20% higher than the minimum for conventional cotton. Buyers of fair trade cotton must pay a premium of US$.05 per kilo of fair trade seed cotton. These monies are used by producer organizations for social and economic investments such as education, health services, processing equipment and loans to members. Environmental standards restrict the use of agrochemicals and encourage sustainability. Pre-Export lines of credit are given to the producer organizations if requested, of up to 60% of the purchase value.
Fiber The smallest textile component. Fiber is a near microscopic hair-like substance that may be natural or manmade. Fibers suitable for textile use possess adequate length, fineness, strength, and flexibility for yarn formation and fabric construction, and for withstanding the intended use of the completed fabric. Other properties affecting textile fiber performance include elasticity, crimp (waviness), moisture absorption, reaction to heat and sunlight, reaction to the various chemicals applied during processing and in the dry cleaning or laundering of the completed fabric, and resistance to insects and micro-organisms.
Filling (Weft) The lengthwise selvage to selvage horizontal yarns carried over and under the warp. Filling yarns generally have less twist than warp yarns because they are subjected to less strain in the weaving process and therefore require less strength. In pile-fabric constructions, such as velvet or velveteen, extra sets of warps are used to form the pile. A single filling yarn is known as a pick.
Five Pocket Jean A five pocket jean has two back pockets plus two front pockets and a coin pocket inside the front right pocket, for a total of five pockets. 
Flannel Any napped fabric in twill, plain weave, printed, yarn dyed or solid color.
Flax A natural vegetable fiber composed mainly of cellulose that is processed from the stems of the flax plant. The flax plant yields long fibers while the color can range from light ivory to dark tan or grey. Linen is made of flax fibers.
Foam Finishing The application of a chemistry that is delivered in the form of foam. This allows for very low levels of wet pickup. Both stable and unstable foams can be used.
Four-Way Stretch Fabrics that stretch in both vertical and horizontal directions
Gabardine A woven fabric with a distinctive 45 degree or 63 degree warp face, left hand twill if single plied yarns are used or right hand twill of a two-ply yarn are used in the weft. Gabardines are made from any fiber - not just cotton.
Garment Dip Finishing A garment finishing system that applies the chemistry to the garment in either a garment machine or a vat. The garments are agitated in the chemical bath followed by extraction and then drying and/or curing. The unused chemical bath is captured, refurbished and used again.
Garment Dye A dyeing process in which color is applied onto a fabric in garment form. Dyestuff on pocket linings and labels is an indication a jean has been garment dyed.
Ginning The industrial process that removes seeds from picked cotton.
Good Middling The term for the best grade of cotton.
Gray Goods / Loomstate / Greige / Grey Words used to describe fabric that is just off the loom woven but unfinished in any way.
Grinding A description of a dry process that involves intentional wear or damage to the fabric or seams so as to look used, worn or relaxed. This process may be done with bench griders, dremel tools or teflon brushes.
Hand or Handle The way a fabric feels. This is a very subjective judgment of the feel of a fabric and it should help decide if a fabric is suitable for a specific end-use. Hand may be crisp, soft, drapeable, smooth, springy, stiff, cool, warm, rough, hard, limp, soapy, etc. Finishing and garment wash affects the final handle of a fabric.
Harness The frame holding heddles that have warp yarns threaded through its eyes.
Heather / Cross Dye / Top Dye / Mélange A mixed fabric color is achieved (the best examples are grey t-shirts, socks, or wool used in suitings) by using different colors of dyed fiber, and mixing them together. Black and white fiber mixed will combine to give gray heather fiber.
Heddles Steel wires, or thin flat steel strips held by the frame with a loop or eye near the centre through which one or more warp yarns pass on a weaving loom so that the thread movement is controllable. Heddles control the weave pattern and shed as the harnesses are raised and lowered during the weaving process.
Hemp A controversial fiber with a bad image, hemp is a low cost annual seed plant that grows in most climates. Hemp’s natural fiber and seed oil have over 25,000 possible industrial applications and these were once competitors of wood pulp, cotton, and petroleum products like inks, paints, plastics, solvents, sealants, and synthetic fabrics. Hemp (officially named cannabis sativa, L, from the Greek Kannabis) fell victim to the anti-drug sentiment of the times when the U.S. Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act in 1937. The intent of this law was to prohibit the use of marijuana, but it created so much red tape that the production of industrial hemp became nearly impossible in spite of all the products that are derived from hemp. In his October 30, 1998 editorial in California’s most conservative newspaper, the Orange County register, Senior Columnist Alan Bock stated that “Since 1937, about half the forests in the world have been cut down to make paper, if hemp had not been outlawed, most would still be standing, oxygenating the planet.”
Herringbone Herringbone is a weave where twill warp stripes are created by running twills in different directions.
Hoechst Celanese A science-based, market-driven company, who produce and market chemicals, fibers and films, engineering plastics, high-performance and specialty materials, pharmaceuticals, and animal-health and crop-protection products. Hoechst Celanse is the largest a subsidiary of the Hoechst Group, a premier worldwide organization with 280 companies in 120 countries and an annual sales volume of $28 billion.
Indigo Indigo is a blue vat dyestuff, that was originally taken from the “Indigofera tinctoria” plant by fermenting the leaves of the shrub. In 1897, fourteen years after Adolf Von Bayer identified the chemical structure of the indigo, the chemical became synthetically manufactured. Indigo’s inherent features are good colorfastness to water and light, a continual fading and an inability to penetrate fibers completely. This allows the blue color in jeans made from indigo to always look irregular and individual. There is no dyestuff like it!
Intimate Blend Yarn Different fibers are blended together to make a yarn composed of two fibers. The purpose is to a mix the properties and characteristics of individual fibers into one new mixed fiber.
Jacquard A highly figured fabric woven on a Jacquard loom. Denim mills sometimes employ the technique on denim fabric to create all-over patterns and texture.
Jean Comes from the French word “genes” used to describe the pants sailors from Genoa once wore. While the historical definition implied that all jeans were made of denim, jeans today usually refer to a garment that has 5 pockets (two in the front, 2 in the back, and a small change pocket on the front right) and this style can be made using and kinds of fabrics like corduroy, twills, or bull denim.
Khaki Khaki uniforms have roots in colonial India and later became the official color for uniforms of British armies, native and colonial, in India. Today the word is used both as a color and as a style of trouser, Khaki is beige to yellow military color and the garment is usually a men’s army style trouser made of a twill cotton fabric.
Laser Wash A method of "washing" denim that uses lasers to achieve wash effects normally achieved through the use of water, chemicals and manual processes. Laser washing does not require the use of water.
Laundry A manufacturing company that takes unwashed jeans and processes them. This processing includes washing, stone washing, sandblasting, and garment dyeing. Laundries today are critical in making jeans look commercial and wash development has become equally important to fabric development in the jeanswear industry. The best laundries and wash developments come from Italy, Japan and the United States.
Laydown The selection of appropriate bales chosen by fiber properties for the manufacturing of a yarn.
Left Hand Twill A fabric weave where the twill line runs from the top left hand corner of the fabric towards the bottom right. Usually in piece-dyed fabrics, left hand twill fabrics are woven from single plied yarns in the warp. In the jeans industry Lee has always used Left Hand twill denims as their basic denim.
Linen A fiber taken from straw of the flax plant. The stems are steeped in water to remove resinous matter and allow fermentation to take place. After fermentation is completed, the fibrous matter is separated from the woody matter and spun into thread. The fiber can be from 2”-36” long with a natural color that caries from light ivory to dark tan or grey. Linen is very absorbent, takes dyes more readily than cotton but has poor resiliency. [See: flax]
Loom The weaving machine. The most famous loom manufacturers are Sulzer Ruti from Switzerland, Picanol from Belgium, Dornier from France, Tsudakoma/Toyoda from Japan and Vamatex from Italy. The word loom is applied to any set of devices permitting a warp to be tensioned and a shed to be formed. The warp shed is formed with the aid of heddles where one heddle is provided from each end of warp thread. By pulling one end of the heddle or the other, the warp end can be deflected to one side from the other of the main sheer of the ends. The frame holding the heddles is called a harness. Today there are three kinds of looms: dummy shuttle, rapier, and a fluid jet. The dummy-shuttle type, the most successful of the shuttle-less looms, makes use of a dummy shuttle, which is a projectile that contains no weft but that passes through the shed in the manner of the shuttle and leaves a trail of yarn behind it. The rapier type conveys a pick of weft from a stationary package through the shed by means of either a single rapier or a pair of rapiers. Rapiers are either rigid rods or flexible steel tapes, which are straight when in the shed but on withdrawal are wound onto a wheel. In order to save floor space, rapier looms are, on the whole, simpler and more versatile than a dummy-shuttle looms bur are slower in weaving speed. There are two kinds of fluid-jet looms, one employs a jet of air, and the other a water jet to propel a measured length of weft through the shed. The significance of this is that nothing solid is passed into the shed other than the weft, which eliminates the difficulties normally associated with checking and warp protection. Additionally, this jet technology reduces the noise to an acceptable level. The machines can attain great weaving speed and output.
Loomstate Loomstate denim, as the name implies, is denim that comes straight from the loom, and has not been subject to sanforization, singeing, skewing or any other stabilisation or starching process. Most denim reproducing pre 1920s jeans will be loomstate, and is likely to shrink and move more than treated denim.
Loop Dyed One of the three major industrial methods of dyeing indigo yarns, loop dyeing  involves pulling ropes of yarn through a vat of indigo dye then out up onto the roof of the factory, allowing the yarn time to oxidize before returning to the dye bath. Loop dyeing creates more consistent indigo shades and requires less space to operate than other dyeing process.
Lubricant A tallow-based product added to a wash step to avoid wrinkles, soften the surface of a fabric, or help create smoothness.
Lycra® DuPont’s trademark for spandex fiber.
Lyocell The generic name given to the cellulosic fiber developed by Courtaulds.
Man-Made Fiber Viscose and Acetate, derived from cellulose, were almost all the man-made fibers in existence before WWII. During the 1930s, after intensive fiber research, several new synthetic fibers were produced experimentally. This led to the production of nylon (DuPont’s invention), the first commercially successful synthetic-textile fiber. Since that time, synthetic-fiber production has created polyesters, acrylics, polyolefins, and others.
Marble Wash See: Acid Wash
Mercerization An industrial process used on yarn or fabrics to increase luster as well as dye affinity. It can also be used on fabrics destined for the jeanswear industry to keep dye on the surface of the yarns or fabrics so that dyes do not fully penetrate the fiber.
Moon Wash See: Acid Wash
Napping Mechanical finishing process that raises the fibers on the face of a fabric by the continuous application of the fabric to rotating rolls covered by steel wire points. Also known as "brushing."
Natural Dyes Up to the middle of the 19th century there were only natural dyes and most of these were of vegetable origin. Natural indigo was one of the more important dyes. Natural dyes usually have no affinity for textile fibers until the fibers are treated with aluminum, iron, or tin compounds to receive the dye (mordanting). This is a problematic process and the dyes in any case have poor fastness to sun or abrasion.
Natural Fibers Any hair-like raw material directly obtainable from animal, vegetable, or mineral sources that can be convertible after spinning into yarns and then into woven cloth. The usefulness of a fiber for commercial purposes is determined by its length, strength, pliability, elasticity, abrasion resistance, absorbency, and various surface properties.
Nylon Nylon is a synthetic fiber invented by DuPont that was used originally for hosiery but is currently used in many applications. Nylon is naturally water repellant, easy to dye, and very strong. These features have helped nylon replace cotton in many industrial uses like bags and flags and in very popular for use in the outerwear apparel industry. Nylon has a poor absorbency and breathability.
O.F. or A.F. Other fibers (Altre fiber), can be found on the Composition label of fabrics containing recycled materials. Many of the fabrics produced in the Italian area of Prato are made using yarns spun from blends of reclaimed wool (and, of course, other fibers!).
Open End Spinning A spinning process where a fiber rope / sliver is fed into a high-speed rotor shaped like a cup. The end of a yarn is placed inside and drawn out as the fibers accumulate on the “open end.” Open-end yarns are not as strong as ring spun yarns of the same size because some of the fibers do not lie parallel to the axis of the yarn and because the twisting is from the inside out of the fiber bumdle.
Optical Brightness or Optical Whiteners Chemicals that make fabrics appear to reflect more light than they really do, to make them brighter by converting ultraviolet light to visible light in the blue region. They are sometimes used in the manufacture of fabrics and are often included in the formula of many detergents sold for home use.
Organic Cotton Cotton grown where toxic chemicals have been eliminated in all growing process steps. Living soil (defines as being free of toxic chemicals for three years) is the basis of an organic farm and organic farmers have proven when plants are healthy they are able to resist insects, weeds, and disease.
Overall A one-piece garment style usually made from denim or canvas. It is a pant with a bib top and suspenders over shoulders and back. Originally overalls were designed as a workwear product.
Overdye Fabric dye process on denim fabrics, most frequently used on indigo or black denim fabric, which yields overdyed black.
Oxford A weave of fabric originally made in Oxford, England. This fabric is a plain weave fabric where two or more filling yarns pass over and under one or more parallel warp yarns. It is possible to have 2×1, 2×2, 3×2, 4×4, or 8×4. Oxford is used in dress shirting fabrics where the warp is colored and the filling is natural. Oxford weave is also very popular in nylon for outerwear jackets.
Oxidation A chemical process where oxygen and another substance chemically join. Oxidation occurs when indigo yarn comes out of the indigo bath during dying between dips, and this process is critical for the dyestuff to penetrate the fiber.
Ozone Ozone or trioxygen (O3), is a triatomic molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms. Ozone is a powerful oxidant and has many industrial and consumer applications related to oxidation. In the denim industry ozone is used to fade or "wash" indigo-dyed garments.
Ozone Wash Jeans can be "aged" and faded by using an ozone machine. Wet jeans are placed into the apparatus, and the chamber is infused with O3. This gas oxidizes the indigo or dye
Pad Azoic A little-known dyestuff that was used in the late 1960s and early 1970s instead of indigo when there was insufficient indigo production throughout the world to support the demand.
PFD A fabric which is prepared for dyeing, abbreviated PFD, is specially made to be garment dyed. PFD fabrics have been desized, scoured, and fully bleached, but have been processed without optical brighteners or softeners which can interfere with dye uptake. PFD's synonyms are PFGD (prepared for garment dye) or RFD (ready for dye).
Pick Weaving means the assembly of vertical and horizontal yarns. These horizontal yarns can be called "picks" or "wefts." The vertical yarns are called the warp or ends and are traditionally the dyed yarn.
Pigment Insoluble particles used to impart color onto a variety of fibers. Because they have no affinity for a substrate, a binder must be used to fix the pigment onto the surface of the fibers.
Pigment Dyes Dyes without affinity for fiber and therefore held to fabric with resins. They are available in almost any color and have been used extensively in the jeanswear industry by fabric dyers who want to create fabrics that fade.
Pima Cotton Pima cotton, also called extra long staple (ELS), is a type of cotton grown primarily in Peru, the southwestern United States and Australia. It is considered to be one of the superior blends of cotton and is extremely durable and absorbent. This type of cotton is named after the Pima, a group of American Indians who first cultivated the plant in the U.S., but the cotton's origins are its cultivation in Peru. Unlike the more common upland cotton, which is of the species Gossypium hirsutum, pima cotton is of the Gossypium barbadense species. American Pima is marketed as “Supima.”
Plain Weave The simplest and most common fabric weaves where the filling yarn passes over and under each warp yarn in alternating rows.
Ply All yarns are single ply unless twisted with another yarn. Terms used are two-ply if two yarns are twisted together and three-ply if three are twisted. Plied yarns are used to make yarns stronger. In the jeanswear industry it has become important to ply yarns in piece-dyed fabrics that are intended to endure a long stonewash cycle.
Points / Demerit Points Relative to agreed production standards between a manufacturer of woven fabrics and a buyer, there are visual fabric inspections. These inspections require a numerical assessment to be made to the areas of the fabric where there may be defects in question.
Polyamide (abbr. PA) See: Nylon
Polyester (abbr. PSE) Polyester is made of chemicals derived from coal, air, water, and oil. Polyester is a strong fiber with a good dye affinity, a high luster and good resiliency. In the 1960s polyester and cotton were blended and had mass-market appeal due to the blending of both fibers’ strengths. Polyester’s weak characteristics are that it pills, is non-absorbent and traditionally scores poor breathability results.
Poplin Name of a light-weight tightly woven, plain weave fabric where a coarser yarn is used in the filling than the warp, creating a slight rib effect across the width of the goods. U.S. Customs defines this fabric as “not of a square construction, whether napped or not, weight less than 200 gms per square meter, containing 33 or less warp ends and filling picks per square centimeter.”
Post-Cure Finish Durable press finish that is dried continuously in fabric form, but cured at a later time while still in fabric form (fabric post-cure) or after the cut-and-sew operation (garment post-cure).
Potassium Permanganate An oxidyzing chemical applied in a variety of creative ways to jeans to discharge or remove color from the jeans uniformly or randomly, moderately or severly, depending on the application.
Pre-Cure Finish Durable press finish in which the fabric is dried and cured in the mill before the garment is cut and sewn.
Pumice Stone A volcanic stone used for stone washing garments. Pumice is popular because of its strength and it is light-weight.
Quality Control This term unfortunately can mean everything and nothing! It is normally used to imply inspection of products throughout the manufacturing process to ensure that the finished products meet agreed standards.
Ramie The perennial stalk-producing ramie plant has been cultivated in eastern Asia for fiber since prehistoric times. Growing 3-8 feet high, with heart shaped leaves, the plant's fibers were used in fabric in ancient Egypt and were known in Europe during the Middle Ages. Ramie fiber did not achieve importance in the West until the 1930s. Because of its desirable properties, including strength and durability, ramie has frequently been promoted as a textile fiber of great potential. Ramie fiber is pure in color, lustrous, moisture-absorbent, and readily dyed. The fiber is also stronger than flax, cotton, or wool. Fabric made from ramie fiber is easily laundered, increasing in strength when wet, and does not shrink or lose its shape. It dries quickly and becomes smoother and more lustrous with repeated washings. Ramie is resistant to mildew and other micro-organisms and retains good fastness to sun. Because ramie is brittle, though, spinning it is difficult and weaving is complicated because ramie has a very hairy yarn surface.
Rayon The synthetic fiber known as rayon is produced from regenerated cellulose (wood pulp) that has been chemically treated. Fabrics made of rayon are strong, highly absorbent, and soft; they drape well and can be dyed in brilliant, long-lasting colors. Rayon can be used alone or blended with other synthetics or natural fibers. Since the min-1980s rayon use has grown dramatically as new formulations and blends have added more strength and softness to the fabric and have made it more absorbent, more washable, and less vulnerable to wrinkling.
Reactive Dyes Common dyes for cotton that generally have good wash fastness and a variety of bright colors. Generally used for bright colors or when there is a desire not to fade.
Recycled Cotton Old cotton garments, cutting room scraps and unused yarn can all be shredded and reused.
Recycled Indigo Central Textiles has established its own facilities that use Vibrating Membrane Technology to separate dyestuff and water. The reclaimed dyestuff is used to dye denim as part of Central's "Earth" collection. This can highly reduce the chemicals used in denim production and keep a cleaner working environment around the production.
Red Tab The red tab was introduced in 1936 as means of identifying genuine Levi’s jeans as they hadn’t yet trademarked the arcuate on the back pocket - which meant a lot of competing companies had arcuates featured on their jeans. Until 1971, the red tabs had "LEVI’S" written in all capital letters, but with the introduction of the Batwing logo the spelling was changed to "Levi’s." This was the end of an era, but the beginning the vintage ‘Big E’ craze. [Source: After the Denim]
Reed Number The number of threads inserted into the warp, including selvedge.
Resin  Chemical used to impart durable press properties in a fabric or garment. The resin will weaken the fabric.
Resin Treatment In denim processing, it is most common that a laundry will use a DMDHEU glyoxyl type resin to either partially or fully heat set to create or remove wrinkles from a pair of jeans. The same chemistry applied to twills and fabrics is some times called wrinkle-free or "easy care."
Right Hand Twill A fabric weave where the twill line runs from the top right hand corner of the fabric towards the bottom left. Usually in piece-dyed fabric towards the bottom left. Usually in piece-dyed fabrics right hand twills use two plied yarns in the warp. In the jeans industry Levi’s has always used right hand twills for their basic denims in their 501 model as well as their other basic models.
Ring Spinning A multi-step spinning process where fiber in a rope form (sliver / roving) is continuously twisted while it is in the twisting zone that consists of a ring, a ring traveler, and a bobbin rotating at high speed. The traveler carries the yarn around the ring, making about 12 trips around the ring while 1 inch of yarn is taken up on the bobbin. The yarn produced is more uneven than open-end yarn, but it is stronger and smoother to touch because the fibers are more parallel and twisting is from the outside in of the yarn bundle.
Rivet A metal accessory used in apparel that is used for both reinforcement of stress points and for nonfunctional ornamentation.
Rope Dye Rope dyeing consists of twisting the yarns into a rope that is then quickly dipped into indigo baths. It is considered the best method for dyeing denim as the short dyeing time does not allow the indigo to fully penetrate the fibers, thus creating ring-dyed yarn that fades better and faster than fully dyed yarn.
Rotary Screen Printing A continuous method of printing in which a perforated cylindrical screen is used to apply color. Color is forced from the interior of the screen onto the cloth.
S-Gene Patented stretch technology from Cone Mills constructed from multiple core yarn and multiple stretch components. 
S-Twist Yarn A left-handed twisted yarn.
Sand Blasting A manual dry process applied to create a worn appearance on garments typically involving a finely granulated stone abrasive blasted at the surface of a jean with air pressure to remove surface color. According to recent studies, the sandblasting process may have severe health effects on workers – primarily in developing countries – due to overexposure to silica dust. H&M, Levi Strauss, Gucci and Pepe Jeans are among the brands that have publicly banned sandblasting as a treatment for prematurely aging denim, and the group Labour Behind the Label is calling for an industry-wide ban on the practice.
Sanding / Emerising The abrading of a fabric surface with sandpaper or some abrasive substance. Can be performed on all types of fabrics before or after dyeing. This process may also be called "peaching," which is not technically correct.
Sanforize A process of treatment used for cotton fabrics mainly and most textiles made from natural or chemical fibres, patented by Sanford Lockwood Cluett (1874–1968) in 1930. It is a method of stretching, shrinking and fixing the woven cloth in both length and width before cutting and producing, to reduce the shrinkage which would otherwise occur after washing. The aim of the process is a cloth which does not shrink significantly during clothes production by cutting, ironing, sewing or, especially, by wearing and washing the finished clothes. Cloth and articles made from it may be labelled to have a specific shrink-proof value (if pre-shrunk), e.g., of under 1%.
Satin and Sateen A fabric weave where one yarn floats over a series of yarns before it interlaces once. When the warp floats over a series of picks (at least four) the fabrics is called satin. When the filling floats over a series of ends the fabric is called sateen. Satin weaves make fabric surface shiny and very smooth.
Scouring An industrial process where dirt or starch (oil, grease, and sizing) is taken off fabrics.
Screening A laundry process where jeans are checked for quality, repaired, price tagged and packed.
Sea Island Cotton Sea Island cotton is one of the best cotton fibers, known for its silky feel and luster as well as long 1 ¾ inch staple.
Selvage Denim Old 28 or 29 inch width shuttle looms produced denim where selvages were closed. Vintage Levi’s jeans had a single red stripe along both selvages, Lee’s had a blue/green stripe along one selvage, and Wrangler’s selvage stripe was yellow. When vintage shopping for jeanswear check jackets and jeans for selvages because they are a great clue to the real thing!
Shade Batching The process of selecting batches of fabrics into homogeneous shade lots to obtain consistent color continually in garment making.
Shuttle The weft insertion device that propels the filling yarn across (over and under) the warp yarns. Shuttles on old shuttle looms were wooden with a metal tip.
Silicone Silicones are silicon-containing polymer materials that have found wide use in industrial applications because of their great stability. They are available as fluids, sealant-adhesives, mouldable resins, and rubbers. When the first silicone oil was made in the 1870s its insensitivity to both high and low temperatures were noted, but the first silicone rubbers were not invented until 1943. In the 1950s silicones were developed commercially for the aerospace and electronics industries but rapidly found other applications, especially construction. Some fluid silicones are used in garment finishing giving a smooth handle to fabrics.
Silk Silk is the filament secreted by the silkworm when spinning its cocoon, and the name for the threads, yarns, and fabrics made from the filament. Most common commercial silk is produced by the cultivated silkworm, Bombyx mori, which feeds exclusively on the leaves of certain varieties of mulberry trees and spins a thin, white filament. Several species of wild silkworm feed on oak, cherry, and mulberry leaves and produce a brown hairy filament that is three times the thickness of the cultivated filament and is called tussah silk.
Singeing A phase of finishing when the fabric surface hair is burnt or singed using a controlled flame to give a clean appearance to the fabrics.
Sizing Starch, gelatin or glue added to fabrics in the finishing stage to improve touch or weight and to help fabric lying in the cutting phase. Denim fabrics for example have almost 1 oz of sizing. Sizing is also applied to reinforce warp yarns during weaving. Most common starches used are corn in the United Sates, rice in Asia, and potatoes in Europe, or PHOH and other chemical substances. Look out for fabrics containing P.C.P. a highly toxic chemical still used sometimes as sizing agent.
Skewing Created to prevent leg twist, skewing was patented in 1976 by Karin Hakanson. Depending on the twill direction, the fabric is skewed in the corresponding direction to remove tension from the threads. Thus, right hand twill is skewed counterclockwise and left hand twill is skewed clockwise. A fabric’s weight, twill weave, yarn size, and yarn twist all factor into the amount of skewing a material needs. For jeans, the denim is usually skewed between 4% and 10%.
Slasher Dyed Slasher, or sheet, dyeing combines dyeing and sizing into a single process. Warp yarns are repeatedly passed in warp beam form through several baths of indigo dye before being sized and wound for weaving. Slasher dyeing is considered to be lower quality than rope dyeing – the dye does not penetrate well and the color tends to be uneven. However, recent mechanical improvements have helped make it a more viable optio
Slub Yarn A yarn that is spun purposely to look irregular in shape (length and diameter). Usually slub yarns are very regular in repeat and size.
Snow Wash See: Acid Wash
Softener A general description describing the raw materials typically applied in the final step of a wash process to create a soft touch on a jean or woven garment. Typical softener types may include cationic softener, silicone softeners, and a variety of other softener types used for specific funtions.
Spandex  Generic name for man-made fibers delivered from a resin called segmented polyurethane. It has good stretch and recovery properties.
Spinning Spinning is the process by which cotton, wool, flax, and other short fibers are twisted together to produce a yarn or thread suitable for weaving into cloth, winding into rope or cable, or used in sewing. Long, continuous fibers, such as silk, are not spun. To achieve strength and the appropriate thickness, they are thrown, or twisted, together.
Staple Short lengths of fibers, normally measured in inches or fraction of inches, like those naturally found in cotton or wool. Silk, on the other hand, is the only natural fiber that does not come in staple lengths but instead in filament lengths.
Stone Wash A general description of a wash that requires the use of pumice stones either with or without cellulase enzymes.
Sueding A mechanical finish that resembles the look of sueded leather. The appearance on the surface of the fabric is created by the continuous application of the fabric to rotating rolls, usually covered by sandpaper or other similar surface. [source: Cotton Inc.]
Sulphur A type of dyestuff used frequently on blacks, and neutrals that, while economical, has only moderate fastness to washing and light.
Supima The name “Pima” was applied to extra long staple American cotton (previously called American-Egyptian) developed in the U.S. desert southwest in the early 1900’s. The name was given in honor of the Pima Indians who were helping to raise the extra ling staple cotton on the USDA experimental farm in Sacaton, Arizona.
Suvin A Gossypium barbadense variety of extra-long staple cotton grown in India. The fiber is fine, has high lustre and is considered a luxury fiber.
Synthetic Dyes In 1856 William Henry Perkin, an English chemist, discovered the synthetic dye mauveine. From this day forward, synthetic dyestuffs began to supplant natural dyes. The synthetic-dye manufacturing industry was founded by Perkin in 1857, when he set up facilities near London for the commercial production of mauveine and, later, of other synthetic dyes. Other dye-making factories followed both in the U.K. and continental Europe, and new dyes began to appear on the market.
Synthetic Fibers Chemicals combined into large molecules called polymers to produce fibers like nylon, polyester, spandex, acrylic, modacrylic, olefin, saran, and vinyon.
T400 LYCRA® T400® fiber is Invista’s trademark for its bi-component fiber. The fiber itself is made with two distinct polymers which shrink differently, causing the fiber to form a permanent coil. After being exposed to heat in the standard finishing process, the coil gets even tighter. Unlike textured fibers which rely on mechanical processes to develop their stretch, the physical coil-like structure of LYCRA® T400® fiber provides durable recovery. T400® is chlorine-resistant and can withstand bleaching and washing techniques. LYCRA® is a registered trademark of Invista.
Tencel A cellulose fiber made from sustainably-grown trees grown on low-grade land. 99.5% to 99.8% of the solvent used to make Tencel are recycled and used over and over. Tencel can be blended with any other fiber - silk, wool, linen, cotton, cashmere as well as synthetic fibers. Fabrics made with Tencel have a silky drape and buttery hand and can withstand both wet and dry garment processing.
Textile Finishing The non-coloring process to make woven or knitted fabric more acceptable to the consumer. Finishing processes include bleaching prior to dying, treatments, sizing applied after dying affecting touch treatments adding properties to enhance performance, such as preshrinking. Greige fabric is generally dirty, harsh, unattractive and requires considerable skill and imagination for conversion into a desirable product. Italian textile mills are famous as being the best finishers in the world.
Textile Industry Derived from the latin “textere” (to weave) and originally used to describe woven fabrics, "textiles" has become a general term for fibers, yarns, and other materials that can be made into fabrics as well as for woven or knitted fabrics. Threads, cords, ropes, braids, lace, embroidery, nets, bonding, felting, or tufting are textiles.
Textiles A general term used from the latin textere “to weave.” Used today to describe all woven and knitted materials.
Toyoda Loom Invented in Japan in 1924 by Sakichi Toyoda, the Toyodoa Loom was a completely automatic high-speed loom that featured, among other things, the ability to change shuttles without stopping. At the time it was the world's most advanced loom - allowing mills to improve quality and productivity.
Transfer Printing The application of a print pattern from one substrate, usually release paper, to another substrate by the application of heat and pressure. Both fabrics and garments can be printed. [source: Cotton Inc.]
Trevia A branded type of polyester, produced by Hoechst Fibers Inc. It offers better pilling performance than regular polyester.
Twill The term twill designates both a textile weave characterized by diagonal structural designs and the cloth made from that weave. The weave may be varied to produce broken or intertwining fabrics. Twill fabrics are usually firm and are used especially in suits and in sport and work clothes. Twill-weave fabrics are also used for linings, pockets, and mattress ticking. Serge, gabardine, and cheviot are major types of twill.
Uneven Yarn Ring spun yarn is by nature never perfectly regular. These irregularities can be used to give character to the yarn and subsequently to the fabric. It can be either light to give a natural appearance or pronounced, to give an “antique” effect. Even open-end yarns can sometimes reproduce the antique effect, although they are very regular and cannot give a natural effect.
Union Dye Dyeing fabric or yarn containing more than one type of fiber in a dye bath to achieve a uniform color. [source: Cotton Inc.]
Vat Dye Popular dyes for cotton that have excellent lightfastness. Normally they are not sensitive to chlorine but have limited brightness and are sensitive to abrasion. [source: Cotton Inc.]
Velour A knit or woven fabric with a thick, short, cut pile.
Velvet A fabric with a short, closely woven pile, originally made of silk, it is today made of rayon, nylon, acrylic cut pile fibers.
Velveteen Filling pile fabric with a woven cut pile, made to resemble a velvet fabric. The pile is created in the filling, and the use of many pile yarns per inch gives the fabric the appearance of having a uniform pile height. This fabric can have as many as 400 picks per inch, making it a very expensive cloth to produce. [source: Cotton Inc.]
Vicose Rayon [See: Rayon]
Virgin Fibers Fibers never made into fabric before, primarily used for wool fibers (virgin wool) to differentiate between these and reclaimed, reprocessed and reused fibers.
Vortex Spinning Vortex Spinning is a propriatery spinning technology that is considerd to be the latest advance in air jet spinning. The process uses high speed air flow to create a yarn bundle that has no twist at its core while imparting twist on the outside of the yarn to hold the bundle together. Yarn characteristics include improved smoothness, hairyness with less pilling.
Wales They are a series of ribs or ridges usually running lengthwise on woven fabrics. A term used to describe the pile ribs found on corduroy.
Warp The lengthwise, vertical yarns carried over and under the weft yarns. Warp yarns generally have more twist than weft yarns because they are subjected to more strain in the weaving process and therefore require more strength.
Water Repellent Finish A chemical finish that stops or slows down the penetration of external moisture.
Weft The lengthwise, selvage to selvage, horizontal yarns carried over and under the warp. Weft yarns, also known as filling yarns, generally have less twist than warp yarns because they are subjected to less strain in the weaving process and therefore require less strength. In pile-fabric constructions, such as velvet or velveteen, extra sets or warps are used to form the pile. A single filling yarn is known as a pick.
Whiskers A general description typically referring to a worn effect around the front fly of a jean to look naturally worn in - the process is most commonly done with manual abrasion or laser treatments.
Width Width is one of the most controversial issues in the fabric sale.  With can be “selvage to selvage”, where the width value is inclusive of selvages, or “usable” where the value indicates the fabric effectively cuttable.
Wrangler Jeans manufactured by a company called Blue Bell. Blue Bell overall established in North Carolina in 1904, changed its name to Blue Bell Company in 1925 and eventually became the biggest work wear company in the world! After the war, in 1947, Blue Bell started manufacturing jeans for cowboys. The first model was No. 11MW.
X-Dyed Fabrics Cross dyed fabrics present a two color weave, obtained using different color yarns in the warp and weft.
XX The original denim fabric used by Levi’s for the production of their 501 jeans. According to the legend, the name 501 is derived from the lot number of this fabric.
Yarn A generic term for a continuous strand spun from a group of natural or synthetic staple fibers or filaments used in weaving, knitting to form textile fabrics.
Yarn Count The size of yarn is defined by its weight and fineness. You may have Tex=No. of grams per kilometer; English Cotton Count=No of 840 yd lengths per lb; Woollen Count (YSW)=No. of 256 yd lengths per lb; Woollen Count (Dewsbury) = No. of yard lengths per oz; Worsted Count=No. of 560 yd lengths per lb; Metric Count=No. of kilometers per kilogram; Linen Count(Wet Spun) = No. of 300 yd. length per lb; Jute Count=No. of lb per 14.400 yd; Denier=no. of grams per 9.000 meters; Decitex=No. of grams per 10.000 meters.
Yarn Dyed Also know as color wovens, yarn dyed fabrics are produced with yarns already dyed prior to the weaving process.
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